- Acceleration voltage
High voltage potential between cathode and anode which accelerates the electrons into a beam.Air-lock machine
EB welding machine with a separate chamber partition for loading/unloading in order to eliminate the evacuation time by operating parallel to processing time.Anode
Grounded electrode within the beam generation system, forming an electrical potential with the cathode.Atmosphere
Free atmosphere at 1 atm pressure surrounding the beam generator and the workpiece to be welded in Non-vac or In-air processing.Automation
EBW machines run fully automatic. For mass production they can be automatically linked to other equipment for pre and post EB process operations.
- Bead on plate weld
Simulated welding run into material with no joint.Beam adjustment
Magnetic alignment of the beam axis relative to the focus coil axis centre-line.Beam current
Electrical current(measured in amps) flowing in the electron beam.Beam energy
Kinetic energy of the electrons impinging the workpiece; a product of the elementary charge and the accelerating voltage. Sometimes confused with the term - beam power.Beam generator
Source of an electron beam.Beam power
Product of beam current (mA) and high voltage (kV), measured in kilowatts (kW).Beam profile
Envelope of the electron beam as it traverses its way from the beam generator to the workpiece.
Electron emitter; part of the beam generator. It is heated to very high temperatures to free electrons from its surface and is connected to the negative high-voltage potential.Chamber machine
Basic type of an EB welding machine having a suitably designed working chamber which can accessed by an opening and closing door.Cleaning
Any kind of contamination of the parts to be welded will adversely affect the weld quality; therefore cleaning prior to welding is an essential step.Consumption
EB welders need (only) electric energy from supply for operation; compressed air in low amount is used for valve operation.Control
EB machines and processes are CNC or PLC controlled.Cosmetics
Shallow welding run (with adapted parameters) to reduce or smooth-the crown or root part of the penetration weld.Cycle time
Total time to perform a complete EB machine’s work-cycle, independent of the number of parts processed in doing so.
- Deep welding effect
The extreme high power density of the beam not only melts the workpiece metal but also evaporates it locally and forms a key hole. By this means the beam penetrates into the material up to a depth controlled by the parameters used. In moving the beam along the path a deep weld is performed from the solidifying the molten material behind the key-hole.Deflection
The beam of electrons can be deflected by magnetic (and/or more seldom electric) fields which are regulated by the machine’s control.Deflection grid
Digital array of deflection positions which the beam can target on the workpiece.Deflection pattern
Digital or analogue figure which can be transposed by beam onto the workpiece.Deflection system
System of magnetic coils and controlled constant current sources which produce static or dynamic beam deflection movement.Deformation
Thermal distortion of the workpiece; a result of high energy input.
Abbr.: electron beamEB brazing
electron beam brazingEB drilling
electron beam drillingEB generator
electron beam generatorEB machine
electron beam machineEB treatment
electron beam treatmentEB welding
electron beam weldingElectron
Elementary particle having a mass of 9.1 x 10-28 g and carrying an negative electrical charge of 1.6 x 10-19 As.Electron beam
Particle beam produced by a generator to process metallic materials.Electron beam brazing
Fusion brazing by using the heat from an impinging electron beam.Electron beam drilling
Perforation of metallic material by means of single eb-pulse percussion processing [material ejected from eb-pulse generated key-holes].Electron beam generator
Self-contained unit, forming part to an EB welding machine, which develops the electron beam.Electron beam generator
Self-contained unit, forming part to an EB welding machine, which develops the electron beam.Electron beam hardening
A special process to locally transform the surface by means of an electron beam – with the objective of increasing the hardness (especially without melting the surface). Self quenching is performed without any additional cooling process.Electron beam machine
Machine for processing any work by means of an electron beam.Electron beam treatment
Processing any work by means of an electron beam.Electron beam welding
Fusion welding by using the heat from an impinging electron beam.Energy input
Amount of beam energy transformed into heat within the workpiece.Evacuation time
Time to achieve operating pressure.
- Fast beam deflection
High-speed magnetic deflection of an electron beam. Point-to-point frequencies up to 1 MHz.Feasibility of welding
Property of a given metal or metal combination to achieve successful fusion welding without unacceptable inclusions.Filler material
Additional metal (generally in wire form) to fill gaps or to alloy the weld zone material.Floor-to-floor time
Time to process one (1) workpiece from a machine or production line – used in mass production.Focus
Plane of an electron beam where its diameter is at a minimum.Focus coil
Current-current torriodial coil; producing a magnetic focus effect on the electron beam.Focussing
See: focus coil
- Gun column
Colloquial term for electron beam generator.
Transformation of steel or cast iron microstructure to martensite.
- Indexing machine
High volume production EB machines equipped with an indexing table carrying a minimum of two stations for loading/unloading and processing, respectively.Interlinking
This means the automated integration of an EB welding machine to other equipment within a production line.
- Job shop
Plant for sub-contract electron beam production, for both one off and mass production.Joint preparation
Particularly the form of the joint edges. Most common type used in EB welding is a butt joint with theoretical zero-gap.
- Key hole
Metal-vapour gas capillary opening developed in deep welding processing.
- Magnetic lens
See: focus coilMass production
High volume production achieved by EB processing with minimum down times.Material assembly
EB welding is able to join dissimilar materials.Metallurgy
The resultant microstructure resulting from the fusion process created by the electron.Microstructure
Composition and configuration of the basic elements within a metallic alloy or compound.
Abbr.: Nonvacuum electron beam weldingNonvacuum electron beam welding
Application of an electron beam (generated in a high-vacuum unit) out of vacuum, i.e. in free atmosphere.
The process area can be observed by means of light-optical systems (via TV camera) or by using reflected electrons from a scanned beam.Operation costs
Low operation costs are a general characteristic of EB machines.
- Production cell
EB machine interlinked to other operating units within a production cell.Production line
EB machine interlinked to other operating units within a production line.Protection gas
In contrast to all other fusion welding processes EB welding does not need any gas to protect weld metallurgy.Pumping unit
Equipment to develop a vacuum within the EB machine, in order to develop and weld with the electron beam.
In particular the properties of any EB processing. Quality levels are defined in certain norms.
- Radiological protection
EB produces unwanted X-rays as a by-product. Human have to be protected from high levels of X-radiation, this is achieved within the EB-machine’s design concept.Rotary indexing machine
See: indexing machine
- Single-item production
Complex and expensive parts are processed as single processes in direct contrast to mass production.Smoothing
See: cosmeticsSurface modification
By local heat treatment – without or with melting the surface – the EB can change the metallurgical structure within a certain depth of the surface. This includes hardening, remelting, alloying, embedding, structuring etc.
A set of parameters used within a special process or application.
In order to avoid scattering of the electrons by gas molecules the beam generator (~10-4 mbar) as well as the working chamber (10-2 to 10-6 mbar) are evacuated.Vacuum chamber
See: working chamber
- Waist of beam
In contrast to a laser beam, the electron beam is not focussed to a precise level (a point) but exhibits a focus-waist (a few millimetres in length). EB processes are therefore less sensitive to small tolerances in working distance.Wall-plug efficiency
The effectiveness of converting electrical energy into thermal welding power.Wehnelt electrode
This solid grid cup (placed between cathode and anode within the beam generating system) controls the beam current by means of its negative field-potential.Weld depth
The penetration depth of the key-hole determines the depth of the achievable weld.Weld profile
The shape and form of the solidified metal seen in a transverse weld cross-section. The two fusion faces (flanks) of EB welds are typically parallel; therefore reducing the angular shrinkage and workpiece distortion.Weld with
Measure of the distance between the two fusion faces of a weld profile.Welding
In particular, processes and their result within the solidified melting pool with respect to the composition and properties of the weld metal.Welding technology
In particular, whole set of parameters used in a special welding task.Working chamber
Evacuated chamber of an EB machine where the EB process takes place.
Short-wave electromagnetic radiation which occurs parasitically with any electron beam process. Its “hardness” (ability for penetration) increases with the level of the accelerating high voltage.